A hypothesis is a statement that a researcher can use to test the relationship between variables. The hypothesis statement has many similarities with the thesis statement. For example, they both tell readers about the significance of the research. But they also have some differences. The hypothesis may be wrong, but a thesis statement is always true. Therefore, the thesis containing the wrong hypothesis is acceptable. But a thesis containing the wrong thesis statement is not acceptable.
In other words, the purpose of a hypothesis is to link variables in different ways. In hypothesis statements, there are equal chances of both rejection and acceptance. Hence, we can say that the hypothesis is an initial idea of research. The following section will give a few definitions of the hypothesis and a guide to writing one.
Definition of Hypothesis:
A hypothesis is a statement or suggestion that aims to explain processes with evidence. The time for forming a hypothesis depends on the type of research approach you use. The most common research approaches are the inductive and deductive approaches (Khan, 2014). By definition, the deductive approach is the one that starts with a hypothesis. But in the case of the Inductive approach, we form a hypothesis at the end (Azungah, 2018). Thus, the time of hypothesis formation depends upon a suitable research approach. Yet, in different researches, the time of hypothesis formation may also differ. But still, we all have to include a hypothesis within our research.
Different definitions of the hypothesis suggest different points about it. Other sets of definitions explain that.
‘The hypothesis is a point of origin for a research.’
‘The hypothesis is a method to translate research objectives into the recommendations.’
‘A hypothesis is an idea to interpret different aspects behind a phenomenon.’
‘Hypothesis is a way to show significant relationships among the study’s variables.’
‘A hypothesis after testing can become a part of the theory. And it can become a theory in itself.’
Features of a Hypothesis:
It is essential to know the features of the hypothesis before starting this guide. No one will search the keywords ‘how to write a hypothesis?’ without knowing its features first. The essential features of a hypothesis include the following aspects.
- The most important feature of a hypothesis is the starting point of research.
- It has the potential to show the right path to construct your research.
- In traditional experimental research, it is the second step. The first step of research is the observation of a problem.
- It acts like navigation for your school of thought.
Components of Research Hypothesis:
Knowledge about components of the attractive hypotheses is also essential. Like all sentences and statements, the hypothesis also follows proper sentence structure. The sentence structure of the hypothesis must have the following components.
- The factors affecting the problem under study.
- The possible changes you will go to observe.
- It must relate the independent variables with the dependent variable.
- It must suggest how changing one variable will impact the other.
- And finally, how much time does one factor take to influence another one.
How to Write a Hypothesis?
In academic writing, the writing style of the hypothesis is essential. Unfortunately, there is no hard and fast rule to writing a hypothesis. But, still, this section will suggest to you how to write your hypothesis statement like a pro. The following steps will allow you to form a strong hypothesis. Yet, this hypothesis writing guide will give your research a new direction. The following steps will give direction to your research.
Starting By Making A Question:
Making research questions is the first step in hypothesis writing. You are writing research questions that best suit your aims is necessary. These research questions will provide you with an initial platform to construct the hypothesis. It also clarifies your point of view about the nature of the problem statement. It helps you investigate the influencing factors. These critical factors will later become the independent and the dependent variables.
Searching Relevant Material:
Searching for relevant material is the second step of hypothesis writing. How the research will help you make a reasonable hypothesis is an interesting question. The answer is that research helps you find suitable keywords. Hence, keyword searching can help you make a short and precise hypothesis. So the use of short and precise words in the hypothesis can save a reader from irritation.
Moreover, it increases the readability score of your statement. Hence, an easy-to-read and precise hypothesis clarifies the investigation means to another researcher. A vital searching skill is also crucial for reliable research.
Drafting A Rough Hypothesis:
Drafting a rough hypothesis is the third step in hypothesis writing.
Step two will help you in achieving this aim. The knowledge you gathered from the previous step will help you make a rough statement. Try to play with the keywords you have searched. This tip will help you make a rough statement. Using available knowledge to make a short statement is a tip for drafting a rough hypothesis.
Exclude Weak Phrases:
The exclusion of weak sentences is the fourth step of the hypothesis writing guide. In this step, you will delete confusing words from the rough statement. This is a perfect time to refine this rough statement as well. You can refine your rough statement by considering the following points.
- You must ensure whether your rough statement has variables or not?
- Have you introduced experimental groups in the rough statement or not?
- Is your rough statement predicting possible findings or not?
Re-Tune Your Hypothesis:
Writers use three ways to refine a hypothesis. Selection of the way to phrase your statements depends on the field of study. You can choose any one of the following ways to refine your statement.
- Please use ‘If and then’ to phrase your statement to predict outcomes. First, add the independent variables, then use dependent variables.
- You can also use cause and effect relationships to make your hypothesis. Again, cause and effect are the easiest way to phrase your hypothesis.
- If a study involves two variables, the hypothesis will predict the difference. Thus, you can better shape your hypothesis by choosing any one of these phrasings.
Add A Null Hypothesis In Your Final Draft:
If research includes statistical models, forming the ‘Null hypothesis’ is necessary. The null hypothesis is valid when there is no connection between the two variables. Yet after rejecting the Null hypothesis, you need to make an alternative hypothesis to complement it.
Types of Hypothesis
In academic writing, there are different types of hypotheses. So, before writing a hypothesis, the writer should be aware of its different types. These are highlighted as follows;
This is the simplest form of a hypothesis. This hypothesis has to show the connection between independent and dependent variables.
For example: Working hard is the key to success. This statement clarifies the relation between success and hard work. Where ‘working hard’ is an independent variable, and ‘success’ is a dependent variable.
The complex hypothesis introduces many independent and dependent variables within a single statement. It is a way to show the relationship between many factors. Understanding this concept will become more accessible by considering the following example.
If a person takes too much Alcohol, Nicotine, and Caffeine, it will affect proper functioning of the lungs, heart, and kidney.
This statement is a complex hypothesis. It shows the relationship between dependent variables ‘Nicotine, Alcohol, and Caffeine, and independent variables ‘Lung, heart, and kidney,’ in a single statement.
Non- Directional Hypothesis:
Unavailability of theory is a problem students often face in writing a hypothesis. In a non-directional hypothesis, you cannot precisely link both types of variables. Instead, this hypothesis suggests a mild relation that may or may not exist. Thus, it seems a little complex. Consider the following example to clarify your concepts about the Non-directional hypothesis.
Eating green tea and fresh vegetables might solve your weight-increasing problem.
However, it is a non-directional hypothesis. This can be said if it does not have any theoretical evidence.
Unlike non-directional hypotheses, directional hypotheses have a different stance. The directional hypothesis is a way to show the researcher’s concerns about a process (Stamatovic and Cvetanovic, 2012). In this hypothesis, available theories can prove the relation between variables.
The patients who take too much Caffeine and Nicotine have more chance of lung disease than those who drink only alcohol.
If this statement has medical evidence, then it is a directional hypothesis.
Null And Alternative Hypothesis:
In analysis, researchers use Null statements to increase the importance of their research. A null hypothesis aims to show no difference among variables. But you can form an alternative hypothesis after rejecting the null hypothesis. Alternative hypotheses give other possible ideas after the rejection of the null hypothesis.
An associated hypothesis is another hypothesis that can tell the relation between two variables. Such a hypothesis aims to show how changing one variable will also change the other one.
The act of applying stress after Hook’s Limit will change the shape of the elastic material.
This statement states the relationship between the two variables. You can tell your reader that strain production is proportional to the strain produced in a body through this. Hence, it is an associated hypothesis.
Hopefully, the explanation of different hypothesis types will help you select an appropriate one. Then, after knowing the requirements of each type, you will not become confused in producing your hypothesis. The following section will further highlight some tips to help form your hypothesis.
Pro-Tips to Write a Hypothesis:
The sections above provided details on essential components and the types of hypotheses. This section will give you a few tips for developing a compelling hypothesis:
- Choose the topic of your interest. It will help you in conducting deep research without getting bored.
- In selecting a research topic, you can adopt another tip to increase your productivity. Another tip is ‘turn your curiosity into a topic of your interest.’
- To write a compelling hypothesis, you need to define your variables. Precise, easy to read, and short sentences are essential. They can increase the acceptance of your hypothesis.
- The use of sentences, including the ‘If and then’ phrase, can show relations between two variables.
- Select the type of hypothesis from section 6 to strengthen your approach.
- A reasonable hypothesis must have the potential to regenerate new ideas. In other words, an influential hypothesis can give ideas to other researchers. Other researchers can use new ideas to produce a replicate of those.
- You should keep the sentence structure of a hypothesis simple. But you must keep in mind that simplicity never harms the significance of your hypothesis.
- In case of any difficulty in writing a hypothesis, please seek help from an expert.
- Writing a hypothesis is not a technical task. But it seems a bit difficult for the fresher. Yet after many trials, you can convert it into an easy task. So, don’t lose hope or confidence. Keep pushing through hard work.
- You will make a professional style hypothesis by considering this guide.
- Hypothesis formation is not only limited to an academic task. But it is also a task for our daily lives. In one way, hypotheses increase the importance of your research. On the other hand, it increases the importance of your decisions every day.
In research, a hypothesis represents the relation between two factors. In daily life, the hypothesis compares two experiences. For example, you have three movies to watch at night. But you don’t have the time to see all of them. You can only select one out of the three. And you don’t even know which one you will like more. In this situation, based on different factors, you will select anyone. Film teasers, publicity, or the movie’s cast are independent factors. Your choice of movie is the dependent variable here. The relation between both factors will act as a hypothesis. Thus, this hypothesis will later affect your outcomes. This is about the selection of movies. Through this example, it can be said that hypothesis is an essential part of our daily lives.
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- Azungah, T., 2018. Qualitative research: deductive and inductive approaches to data analysis. Qualitative Research Journal. Retrieved from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/QRJ-D-18-00035/full/html
- Khan, F.D., 2014. Formulation of Hypothesis: Importance, need in Contemporary Research. Pakistan Library & Information Science Journal, 45(4).
- Stamatovic, M. and Cvetanovic, S., 2012. The importance of defining the hypothesis in scientific research. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 4(8), pp.170-176. Retrieved from: https://academicjournals.org/journal/IJEAPS/article-abstract/334464E40792